The Marine Underwriting Triangle is the adoption of analysing: “Human Behaviour”; “Technical” & “Commercial Underwriting” augmented by AI to enable a consistent and mathematical approach to facilitate, profitable marine underwriting.

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The Marine Underwriters Triangle



  1. Pre-Boarding ship familiarization?

  2. In House Lawyer/ Legal Team?

  3. Pro Assistance – Food and Catering

  4. Employ Naval Architects?

  5. Member – Marine anti-corruption Network?

  6. CSO Alliance Member?

  7. Near Misses applied in SERS?

  8. Employ Single Nationality Crew?

  9. Employ Single Nationality Officers?

  10. How many Previous Owners?

  11. ISM has cyber-crime response?

  12. Hull Maintenance beyond IMO?

  13. Member – SERS or Other?

  14. Direct Crew Contracts?

  15. Crew Cyber Awareness Training?

  16. What ESG policies are you adopting?

  17. Class Approved Machinery Maintenance?

  18. Bunker Fluid Analysis?

  19. SMS Audit Frequency?


  1. Unusual claims or high incident rate?

  2. How long operating?

  3. Loss ratio record?

  4. Is the Vessel Owned & managed or 3rd party managed?

  5. Where are current insurances?

  6. Vessel valuation against guide


  1. 3D printing applicable?

  2. Agree reconditioned spares – Vessel 12+

  3. Age

  4. Gross registered tonnage

  5. Liquid Gas Capacity

  6. Flag

  7. Owner Nationality

  8. Deadweight Tonnage

  9. Class

  10. Where built?

  11. Cargoes Carried

  12. Type of vessel

  13. Proposed Trading Areas?

The AI tool will rank an Operators approach to risk and premiums will be reflected in the rating.


  • Health, Safety & Environment Management Systems
  • Honest about failure
  • Not afraid to admit mistakes
  • Don’t just try to get it right, but better
  • Well-informed


  • Safety values drive continued improvement
  • Safety is not only Safety Officer’s Concern!
  • Try to prevent next (not last) week accident


  • Systems in place to manage all hazards.
  • Focus on procedures, stats & audits.
  • Surprised when accidents happen


  • Safety is important. A lot is done to avoid accidents
  • “If only they would do what they are supposed to”
  • “Those who have the accidents are those who cause them”
  • “You have to understand it is different here”


  • Don’t care about Safety, Health or the Environment
  • Who cares, as long as we are not caught.
  • “It’s a dangerous business”

Aviation VS Shipping: Lessons Learned

  • March 1977 two 747s collided killing 583 people
  • Many contributory causes but key was a misunderstanding in communication
  • Key consequence was the emphasis placed on human factors or “non-technical” skills
  • Reactive safety management changed to a Pro-active approach
  • A cultural change not as yet witnessed in shipping
  • Reactive however, is the most ineffective and expensive form of safety.
  • Crews must be rewarded and respected and they must be recognised as playing a vital role.
  • The Safety officer must become the pivotal role between the Office and vessel.
  • This has become 2nd nature in the Aviation world

Lessons not Learned in Shipping

  • The need to Change
  • Fear of Change
  • It upsets our comfort zones
  • Many shipping companies are very hierarchical
  • An approach not conducive to creating an open minded and team approach

Insurance Lessons

  • The Insurance industry has to play its part in creating & supporting the change.
  • Which in itself will need to change.
  • Complacency, ignorance or Resistance to Change?

Accident Reduction

Accidents can be reduced because they

  • have, over time.
  • have, where it mattered.
  • depend on (conscious) choices.
  • are mainly due to lack of soft skills.